Validating reasoning

But Osama bin Laden had vanished from the caves of Tora Bora, and none of his key al-Qaeda lieutenants were in U. “The panic in the executive branch was palpable,” recalls Mike Scheuer, the former C. al-Qaeda lieutenant Abu Zubaydah; al-Qaeda operative Khalid Sheikh Mohammed shortly after his capture, in 2003; terror suspect Jose Padilla; former British resident and current Guantánamo Bay detainee Binyam Mohamed. In order to maximize their chances of surprise, they planned to hit 10 addresses simultaneously. “It is incredible what people say under the compulsion of torture,” wrote the German Jesuit Friedrich von Spee in 1631, “and how many lies they will tell about themselves and about others; in the end, whatever the torturers want to be true, is true.”The unreliability of intelligence acquired by torture was taken as a given in the early years of the C. A., whose 1963 kubark interrogation manual stated: “Intense pain is quite likely to produce false confessions, concocted as a means of escaping from distress. True, Afghanistan had been invaded and the Taliban toppled from power. Intelligence about what the terrorists might be planning next was almost nonexistent. official who set up and ran the agency’s Alec Station, the unit devoted to tracking bin Laden. I., together with much greater numbers from Pakistan’s police force and Inter-services Intelligence (ISI). That is not an intelligence reality.”There is, alas, no shortage of evidence from earlier times that torture produces bad intelligence.

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Photo (Sheikh Mohammed); from Reuters/Landov (Padilla); from Press Association/A. Bush’s promise “to hunt down and to find those folks who committed this act” was starting to sound a little hollow. Non-governmental advocates of torture, such as the Harvard legal scholar Alan Dershowitz, have emphasized the “ticking bomb” scenario: the hypothetical circumstance when only torture will make the captured terrorist reveal where he—or his colleagues—has planted the timed nuclear device. It’s just a way of framing the debate for public consumption.

By the last days of March 2002, more than six months after 9/11, President George W. Those who advocated a policy that would lead America to deploy methods it had always previously abhorred simply assumed they would be worthwhile. A., says a retired senior officer who was privy to the agency’s internal debate, there was hardly any argument about the value of coercive methods: “Nobody in intelligence believes in the ticking bomb.

He considered it a topic in logic as a normative field in philosophy, not in purely formal or mathematical logic, and eventually as a topic also in economics of research.

As two stages of the development, extension, etc., of a hypothesis in scientific inquiry, abduction and also induction are often collapsed into one overarching concept — the hypothesis.

The use of tests and other selection procedures can be a very effective means of determining which applicants or employees are most qualified for a particular job.

However, use of these tools can violate the federal anti-discrimination laws if an employer intentionally uses them to discriminate based on race, color, sex, national origin, religion, disability, or age (40 or older).

) is a form of logical inference which starts with an observation then seeks to find the simplest and most likely explanation.

In abductive reasoning, unlike in deductive reasoning, the premises do not guarantee the conclusion.

However, when the formation of a hypothesis is considered the result of a process it becomes clear that this "guess" has already been tried and made more robust in thought as a necessary stage of its acquiring the status of hypothesis.

Indeed, many abductions are rejected or heavily modified by subsequent abductions before they ever reach this stage.

Dualism – The concept Dualism is the concept that our mind is more than just our brain.

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